Inconel valve closure sphere
INCONEL
CIs an alloy (registered trademark) containing 80 % nickel, 14 % chrome and 6% iron. It is typically used in neutronics (science of fission decay chain reaction starting and maintenance) for its mechanical and heat properties, automotive (exhausts). (Density 8.51, melt point 1400ºC).

Inconel valve closure sphere



 

 



MOLYBDENUM

A white and very hard metal, molybdenum , extracted from molybdenite, is used in some special steels to improve their corrosion resistance caused by chemical substances, or as a pigment (molybdenum blue). It is used in petro-chemistry as a catalyst, and in the fabrication of incandescent lamp filaments (bulbs). (Density 10.2, melt point 2620ºC).

Steel part

 




Aluminium part
Aluminium part
Pneumatic spring padding
Pneumatic spring padding
Monochromator
Titanium monochromator
(AZ Système)
TITANIUM
LTitanium is a ductile and malleable metal found in sedimentary rocks allowing the formation of light alloys with good mechanical properties and good corrosion resistance. It is used in the aeronautical and marine industries.In addition, titanium chloride is used as a smoke generator and titanium oxide is used in the paint industry for its strong infrared reflecting properties.
(Density 4.5, melt point 1675ºC).
MU-METAL
Mu-metal (registered trademark) is an alloy composed mostly of nickel (77 %), iron (14 %), copper (5 %) and molybdenum (4 %).
Due to its mechanical properties, this clear metal is mainly used in magnetic shielding, audio frequency transformers, anti-theft systems, recorder head structures and magnetometer coiling.
(Density 8.8).
Gold plated mu-metal pole
Mu-metal pole with gold deposit
(Cameca)
Pneumatic spring padding
TUNGSTENE AND TUNGSTENE ALLOYS
A grey metal, a little less hard than steel, it offers the advantage of little warping under mechanical stress, even in high temperatures. It is used to manufacture filaments in incandescent lamps and in the operational space travel industry.
Tungsten alloys such as Denal, Infermet, Sparkal, Carbene, Cutene, Cunitene, Frénal (all registered trademarks), are used as balancing weights due to their higher density (gyroscope tops), anti-radiation shielding due to their high radiation absorption properties (nuclear, medial applications), and for their hot and cold mechanical properties, de projectiles, boring bars, tightening clamps for hot matrixing.

 

 

 

 

 


High precision mechanics

Various parts in steel, aluminium, titanium.

Pennacchiotti is equipped to machine numerous metals, some known and some less known, in particular those described below.

The information below is a first general approach to their properties and potential uses.
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STEEL
Steel (general term) is an iron and carbon alloy in variable amounts. Most ordinary steels are carbon steels with under 1.7% carbon. They are harder than iron, and the more carbon they contain, the harder they are (but the more brittle too). Combining other materials produces special steels.
Metal treatments are applied to steel to give it tensile and traction strength properties (quench hardening). In order to avoid corrosion (rust), it is protected by a fine layer of metal, tinplate for tin, zinc for galvanised steel, chrome, or anti-corrosion paints.


SPECIAL STEELS

These are steels containing other elements in addition to iron and carbon, added in variable amounts to give the alloy special properties. Thus adding chrome produces non-oxidising high resistance alloys (minimum 12 % chrome), such as stainless steel or refractory steel. Adding nickel reduces heat expansion (the advantages are combined for steels containing nickel and chrome). With manganese, the steel is more resistant to impacts. Silica is added to steels intended for the electric industry. Fore increased hardness, tungsten, molybdenum or vanadium is added. Etc...


KOVAR, DILVER

Kovar and Dilver (registered trademarks) are special steels containing less than 2 % carbon, which nickel and cobalt are added to, giving alloys resistant well temperature changes. They are often used in the fabrication of metal threads built in ceramic and glazing, and in the packaging industry.
(melt point 1449º C, annealing point 1093º C).

ALUMINIUM
Aluminium is an abundant element of the earth's crust, as it is made from bauxite, which is found in clay and feldspar.Aluminium is a white, soft, malleable, light, highly conductive, reducing metal that does not corrode in air (due to the formation of a protective layer of oxide). It is used alone or in alloys with lithium (light), with manganese (high mechanical resistance), with silica, with steel (alnico), etc...

It is highly used in the aeronautical, automotive, and electronic industries (high voltage lines), in the packaging industry, and one of its advantage is it is recyclable. (density 2.7, melt temperature 659º7C).
Camera box
Camera box
Camera box in aluminium (Aaton)
Double goniomètre
Double goniomètre
Double goniometre in bronze, 35 mm diameter, with X,Y translation movement and two angular rotation movements.
(Institut Laue-Langevin)
SPECIAL NON FERROUS ARCAP ALLOYS
Non ferrous Arcap alloys offer interesting features in terms of corrosion resistance with most chemicals (resistance to pipe scaling and clogging due to water), of lack of disturbing magnetic effect, temperature variation resistance and low temperature resistance. When annealed, they allow deep sleeves due to an elongation that can go up to 45 %.
PUR IRON
Pure iron, which contains very little carbon (typically less than 0.005%) is know for its resistance to corrosion (the metal generates an even protective layer of oxide but does not corrode) and its forgeing properties. Indeed, it warps when warm, can be elongated cold without rupturing, is easy to weld, cools more slowly and keeps its temperature, and in terms of aspect, looks warmer due to its finer grain. It is used in the locksmith industry and numerous art activities such as sculpting, ironworking and planishing.
The company may on request work with other metals and materials not mentioned here. Do not hesitate to ask us to take advantage of its over 30 years' experience.
NICKEL
A malleable, highly ductile and resistant metal, nickel is non oxidising at ordinary temperatures and attracts iron under 370ºC. It is used in many alloys such as iron-nickel (stainless steel, permalloy, platinite, invar, maraging), nickel-chrome (inconel), nickel-copper (monel), nickel-copper-zinc (German silver, nickel silver), but also in nickel coating, i.e. the application of a layer of nickel by electrolysis.
(Density 8.8, melt point 1455ºC).


TANTALUM

This metal, whose aspect is close to that of silver, is malleable and ductile, and its properties are its high melt point (3000ºC) and boiling point (5427ºC). It forms alloys withstanding high temperatures, such as in nuclear ovens and reactors. In its oxide form, it is used in the fabrication of very high refractive coefficient glasses. (Density 16.6).

NOBIUM
The nobium is a rare metal, which is used generally in the revetment of the implants medicate them due to his excellent capacities of resistance to the oxidation and his qualities of adhesion to the metal support.
It is a metal difficult to work since it has tendency « to stick » to the hardware of work
conventional turning, machining on turning center, milling, 5 axis milling, cnc machining, precision cnc machining, machining on drilling and tapping center, centering, 5 axis milling, drilling, tapping, boring, surface grinding, cylindrical grinding, honing, machining on machining center, electroforming, wire electro erosion, wire working, tool making, engraving, marking, complete sub unit mounting, hight speed machining, titanium,aluminum, prototype maker, micro drilling

PLASTICS
The company works many plastics, increasingly used in place of metal parts, because metals are often heavier, more susceptible to corrosion, or just more expensive.
The increasing use of plastics is explained due to specific technical features that metals don’t have, such as greater elasticity (PEHD) , or conversely high stiffness with a low coefficient of friction (POM), better expansion coefficient , good resistance against chemical products (PTFE , PE), high temperatures (PEEK), impacts (PC, PET, PMMA) and abrasion (PFTE, rigid PVC, PET), or also, an excellent ability to absorb vibrations (ABS).
They serve as protection because of their lower thermal conductivity or as insulator of electrical cables by their very low electrical conductivity (PTFE, PEHD).
The use of plastics is prevalent today in all industries, without to forget aeronautics, aerospace and medical.